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Profile of a Warrior

Previous Youtube Playlists (not totally perfectly aligned with blog posts but close and may have, sometimes many additional videos in them as well that I saved):


- -Seems important, just the headlines even:





Forgot to share, amazing video...:



May not make it this far within this blog post but...6.02.23 Morning Queue: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLyayQwkmfwmCymFb4mnWWiOt4rkqgczqE


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Khalid ibn Walid, a Profile of a Warrior

The Austin School 49.2K subscribers

1,575,094 views Mar 1, 2022


Dr. Roy Casagranda explores the career of one of the greatest warriors in history. Khalid ibn Walid is essentially unknown outside of the Muslim world despite his brilliant victories. Dr. Casagranda ranks him with Thutmose III and Alexander the Great as having one of the three greatest military records.


------------------ May Allah be pleased with him - "The Sword of Allah (S.W.T.)" -------


Comments:

@fouadbenrezzak8398

9 months ago

Thousands will attend a music show but only 20 will attend Great teacher talking about a great piece of history


@marksteve8373

6 months ago (edited)

Great stuff! 2 corrections:


1. Omar did not take off Khalid as the commander of the army because he thought he had political ambitions! He demoted him because he didn't want people to idolize him thinking that victory was because of him, and not because of God's support. This is because people started saying that as long as Khalid's the commander, we are absolutely winning, and that to Omar was something ungodly because people were placing their confidence not in God, but in Khalid. Dr. Roy went on to say that when Omar met the Roman bishop, he was dressed in rags saying he was a simple man who is satisfied with a simple meal. How could a man like that fear that someone else would take the leadership away from him? In fact, when the first caliph died, Omar was so reluctant to be the 2nd caliph that the people literally had to beg him because he thought it was too big of a responsibility to assume and he feared he might do something unjust that can upset God. He was extremely nit-picky about what he said and he kept having second doubts continuously asking himself: "Did I do what pleases God? Did I say the right thing?"


2. When Khalid was on his deathbed, he said: "..it was my wish to die in the field of battle, and now I die in this bed, just as a camel would die" he said a camel, not a cow.


Other than that, this was a magnificent lecture and I enjoyed every minute of it.


@bediha

5 months ago

he talks like there is a thousand people in front of him. Keeping this level of enthusiasm with 15 students is awesome


@Official_CIA

4 months ago

how in the world is there not a movie about this guy .. what a legend


@manfelt2959

5 months ago

I was doubting when this professor said Khalid is one of the top 3 warriors in history. But every story that he narrates about him, my jaw just dropped. What an amazing man. Can’t believe a dude like this existed years ago.


@awaisafridiyt7736

4 months ago

14 students attended and 1,200,000 students watched it across the world. this is called global village (whole globle acting and connected like a small village) the future of our education is truly impressive. i wanna thank all the staff who recorded this whole lecture so clearly (in terms of voice) and shoot from different angle to keep us engaged and finally uploading it this long all together and not in parts (otherwise we would have never watched it full)


@ashifhassan1148

1 year ago (edited)

One correction : Umar ibn Khattab (R) never hated Khalid ibn waleed (R). He was reminding the people that victory comes from Allah. We are merely humans and we must be humble and praise Allah for what we have achieved.


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Im going start also by making a completely subjective statement

1:16

that when it gets on the austin school youtube channel we'll draw a bunch of ire and i'll probably get a stream of

1:23

nasty comments but i like that so uh and it is this that palette abnormal

1:30

elite was one of the three greatest warriors of all time and that's one of the reasons why i want

1:36

to cover him is because i just want to do a profile in a person who uh if if you're interested in warfare it

1:43

totally embodied warfare so this is a talk about war and and i'll probably also get a little bit of flack for over

1:50

glorifying war which is cool too i'm okay with that as well um when i for the record when i was at

1:56

the university of maryland university college in their history department we were trying to create a war history

2:02

department so this is part of my mental illness um so having said all this


2:10

i want to start by actually attacking the way history is taught in the united

2:16

states and uh the reason is is because

2:22

of the way we structure western civilization courses so if you take western civ 1 and western civ 2

2:30

the general idea in most of the textbooks are set up this way is that western civ 1 will cover

2:36

everything till 14 92 or 1648 whatever arbitrary

2:43

year they picked to stop western civ 1 and then western civ 2

2:48

will be everything since 1648 so in other words we're going to spend 16 weeks

2:55

talking about the first 5 000 years of western civilization and then we're going to spend 16 weeks

3:02

talking about the last 350 which

3:08

is based on two really big flaws the first is sort of a proximity bias

3:14

because the last 350 years or closer to us they therefore must be more important

3:20

which is definitely wrong for example the outcome of the battle of

3:25

actium in 31 bc i guarantee you has way more impact on your day-to-day lives

3:33

than uh the outcome of the british one of the british defeats there were multiple in

3:39

afghanistan in the 19th century but the defeat in afghanistan in the

3:44

19th century was it in the last 200 years there were the british have been beaten four times

3:50

two times in the 19th century um and so it's closer to you

3:55

but it has a much smaller impact than that event 2 000 years ago the battle of actium and so for the first problem is

4:03

this bias is wrong the second problem with this bias

4:09

is its racist implications it is a profoundly racist bias because what it

4:16

attempts to do is distill western civilization into a history of how cool

4:21

white people are as opposed to actually looking at western civilization

4:27

for what it was which was not a color-based endeavor

4:32

and if anything it was founded by brown people so then it it's sort of an attempt

4:38

by french british and english scholars to

4:43

capture something that they didn't create make it theirs and then divorce it from its creators and i can prove

4:50

this to you really simply in fact when you take that western civ one class

4:56

weeks one and two cover mesopotamia and egypt in fact your class is probably

5:03

structured like this week one was mesopotamia week two was egypt every professor is different every

5:09

university is different but probably weeks

5:15

3 4 5 and 6 were greece and then maybe 7 8 9 10 11

5:21

12 13 14 or rome and then 15 was the medieval period

5:27

which is a thousand-year span of time covered in one week and then week 16

5:33

the first part of the modern so if they went to 1648 they went to that right in that last

5:39

week the reason why this is

5:45

rooted in in a profound form of racism is because of the following the class

5:50

admits that western civilization was created by iraqis and egyptians

5:55

it starts in mesopotamia in egypt it admits that and then and then it

6:01

pretends that western civilization got up and ran away

6:06

and began inhabiting italy and germany and england and never again

6:12

ended up in the middle east which is preposterous because all the middle east could ever

6:18

do as the founder of western civilization is simply evolve its western civilization

6:26

do you see what i'm saying it it's not like it could lose it it is it it just evolved differently than italy or

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germany or england but it doesn't make it any less western sieve

6:39

and so the way we teach western civ one where we do one week maybe maybe two

6:45

weeks on the medieval period actually takes us to the next level

6:52

because i'm going to talk about an event that takes place in that we act as if the medieval period which

6:58

we call the dark ages only took place in europe

7:04

and in fact we've renamed the birthplace of western civilization the middle east

7:10

as if it's in the east when it's clearly not in the east since it birthed western civilization

7:17

right and then we ignore everything that was happening

7:23

in the middle east during the medieval period and let me just give you an idea of what was happening in the middle east

7:29

during the medieval period so while europeans had no indoor plumbing and no paved

7:35

roads and their life expectancy was 40 and the way they took care of their waste was

7:40

they would do it in a chamber pot and fling it into the street the middle east had indoor plumbing that

7:47

brought fresh water in and took sewage water out the middle east had streets that were

7:52

lit up at night with oil lamps in part because i want to set the mood

7:59

show you the technology that was available at the time and then tell you why what follows falls

8:07

it's the battle of khadgai uh i didn't actually so i filled up this map i was having the

8:14



caesar decided his family was going bankrupt that the best way that he could solve the bankruptcy was to start an

9:16

illegal war with the celts living in gaul conquer them and then plunder their

9:21

resources and enslave them and so that's what he does and he becomes fabulously wealthy and he saves

9:27

his family from bankruptcy he was part of a secret illegal

9:34

arrangement with two other men the three men were in the senate there

9:40

were two patricians and a plebeian the senate always wanted a plebeian on board

9:45

and the plebeian of course was pompey magnus the most famous plebeian to be in the senate and then caesar who is a

9:51

patrician and another guy named crassus nobody ever remembers classes

9:57

crassus and pompey hated each other's guts and there was a little bit of fear that maybe a civil war would break out

10:03

so to prevent the civil war crassus pompey and caesar got together and

10:08

created this secret little power arrangement so that they could control the senate and then basically the three

10:15

of them would rule rome and everybody would pretend somebody else was doing it

10:21

not cool crassus sees what caesar does sees how

10:26

wealthy caesar becomes and goes wow i want this crassus was the governor of

10:34

syria so he thought who's the nearest rich what's the nearest rich place i can go

10:40

conquer and he went it's persia let me attack it and so he took

10:46

uh forty thousand romans and they marched from syria

10:51

into the persian empire and they met at karhae

10:58

forty thousand romans uh 32 000 infantry and they were heavy

11:04

infantry right think of roman legionnaires with the interlocking shields and the spears called pilum and

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they had a little gladius a little a little short sword and they would march in tight ranks heavily armored they were

11:18

basically just a giant human wall pointy human walk because they had the spear sticking out

11:24

and then about 4 000 light cavalry and about four thousand medium cavalry

11:31

and they went and they they meet the persians that cut hay

11:37

they mean eight thousand persians on horseback 8 000 infantry uh cavalry and which is

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what they had they had 8 000 cavalry and the persians that they met were

11:50

light cavalry with bows and arrows so the romans were like oh we got this

11:57

40 000 versus 8 000 what are they going to do shoot arrows at us so the persians ride up

12:03

and they fire arrows from horseback and the romans were like okay testudo

12:09

testudo is where you take the shields they interlocked you could you could connect them together

12:15

and so they locked them together this way and then the row behind them held the shields up like this and then

12:21

the row behind them held their shields up so that they interlock to make a roof and a wall

12:27

and the persian arrows bounce harmlessly off the top just it probably sounded

12:32

loud but otherwise nobody's injured and so at this point the romans are chuckling they

12:37

were like what are you gonna do just keep doing that you'll run out of arrows eventually and so then the romans march forward

12:44

slowly and then persians turn around and fire another round of arrows at the romans and then

12:51

they ride off so now the romans think okay well let's jason

12:56

so they go out of testudo because you can't run like this you can't run holding a fort near

13:02

you need to lower your shields so they lower their shields and they take off on foot running

13:07

and they're chasing the 8 000 persian horse archers the persian horse archers

13:14

turn around in their saddles and fire backwards nobody had ever done that in

13:20

battle the romans are shocked they're so surprised by the thing they don't have time to pull up testudo and hundreds of

13:28

romans go down


this rattles the romans they're like whoa we can't just chase these guys okay we

13:35

need to be a little more cautious and the persians start running up a hill so now the romans are slowly following

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after them and the persians turn around and shoot but because the romans have slowed down they go back into testudo and not many

13:48

are injured they don't quite get into testudo in time so some of them do get injured

13:55

and so it slows the romans down they're getting a little nervous about all of this but then the persians go over the top of

14:01

the hill so now the romans are like well we might as well run i can't shoot through the hill

14:06

so they start running and they run up the hill and just as they're cresting the hill

14:12

to their shock and dismay the romans see one

14:18

thousand cataphracts cataphracts were fully armored

14:24

soldiers on top of armored horses the first time europeans will do that

14:34

put a fully armored man on top of an armored horse is 14 centuries later

14:42

at the end of medieval europe the persians were technologically 14

14:47

centuries ahead of any european society in terms of heavy cavalry

14:53

one thousand qatar frauds was far superior to 8 000 roman cavalry because

14:59

they were they were tanks there was almost nothing you could do to them and they're charging up the hill as the

15:06

romans are charging down the hill so the romans charging down the hill are trying to stop and they're shouting to the guys

15:11

behind them hey stop running but the guys behind them can't really hear them in part because there are some of them

15:17

are on the other side of the hill but in part because of all the noise and the guys running down the hill can't

15:22

stop running because if they do they'll get knocked down and trampled to death and so they're forced to run towards

15:28

these cavalry units they can't get into formation and the cataphracts cut through them like a hot knife through

15:34

butter it's a catastrophe romans are dying everywhere the cataphracts get to

15:40

the top of the hill they turn around and come back through they get to the bottom of hill they turn around they come back through the romans are doing everything

15:46

they can to try to create order and get back into combat formation and they can't do it eventually crassus's son who is up on

15:54

the hill gets identified by one of the persian warriors they kill him cut off his head stick it on a spike and jam it

16:00

into the ground so that its dad can see his head the romans are completely disheartened

16:07

crassus comes up with a new strategy because while the cataphracts are going up and down the hill the horse archers return

16:15

and they're just shooting arrows at the romans who can't get into formation let alone go into testudo and so the romans

16:21

are getting hammered by arrows and cut to pieces by these heavy cavalry men

16:27

and so he decides you know what we'll do we'll just fight this until the persians run out of arrows

16:35

it's always a bad day when your goal is to get the other side to run out of ammo because they're shooting at you

16:41

you know what i mean it's also a really bad day when the persians brought 1 000 camels

16:49

loaded with 1 000 arrows each

16:55

they had a million arrows and as the persian horse archers are firing the arrows the camels just ride

17:01

up to them and hand them more for all intents and purposes a million

17:08

arrows versus 40 000 men like the persians had an unlimited supply of ammo

17:14



crassus's strategy is a disaster and the persians 9 000 soldiers are tearing these romans

17:21

to pieces the only thing that saves the romans is the sun goes down



17:28

and the persians and the romans basically call it they break up into camps to eat and cook and go to sleep

17:36

in the morning crosses comes out and he says let's talk

17:42

and the persian general his name is suret he's on horse

17:48

and soren says there's nothing to talk about he had a stick with him he draws a line

17:54

in the ground and he says this side is persian this side is rome that line is the euphrates

18:02

river and crassus goes no and when he does one of the roman soldiers free freaks out reaches over and grabs

18:09

surrend the reign of syren's horses and the fight starts again

18:15

because the persians see that and they just swords come out and they and they just tear the romans to pieces again on

18:21

the second day about 10 000 romans escaped

18:29

about ten thousand romans were captured including crassus

18:34

and twenty thousand romans were killed and we don't have real firm number but

18:40

about 200 persians died

18:46

when you outnumber the enemy five to one and they kill you

18:52

at a ratio of a hundred to one that's a bad day


that event triggers almost 700 years of back and forth

20:04

warfare between the romans and the persians just back and forth

20:11

if you were to take all the all the fights and stun them together

20:17

the romans managed to keep so this is this is the border between the romans and the persians they managed to keep

20:23

something like this for most of that time period because the romans had a

20:29

fantastic navy in the mediterranean so every time the persians would capture syria or palestine or egypt or anatolia

20:35

the romans could respond with their navy and deploy troops behind the persians and then that made it so the persians

20:41

could never really hold any land to the west of their empire but as a general rule the persians

2

22:46

and before long africa itself began to grow the rice and as they traded with other people the rice

22:53

began to spread across africa until it got to places like egypt and before you knew it rice was growing in mesopotamia

23:00

and before you knew it rice is growing even in southern parts of europe the reason

23:06

why this is a problem is because to grow rice you flood a

23:12

field and when you flood a field you create a place for for mosquitoes to grow

23:20

malaria malaria-burying mosquitoes and malaria ends up tearing up

23:26

the entire region from spain to iran populations

23:31

the life expectancies absolutely plunge if they were 40 45 they dropped to 20 25

23:39

and as a result rome's population goes into dramatic decline and so does iran's

23:45

and they're just barely scraping by and then as if that's not enough

23:50

there's there's an outbreak of the bubonic plague it's frequently called uh justinian's

23:56

uh plague in the middle of the sixth century and it tears rome and persia to

24:02

pieces the bubonic plague does this really weird thing where it looks like it it's on an 800 year cycle

24:10

where it'll be dormant for 799 years it'll wake up

24:15

tear through the human population for a year maybe two max and then go dormant again when i say

24:22

terror through the human population the last bubonic plague outbreak which was 1348

24:28

killed 40 percent of europeans in a one year span of time

24:33

it killed 60 percent of uh middle easterners and north africans in that same year

24:40

so just put this in perspective we're running about a two percent fatality rate with covid

24:46

not a 50 fatality rate um



so by the time we get to the 6th century a.d the populations

25:23

of both the roman empire and the persian empire are dramatically reduced there are just simply fewer people living

25:29

which means less food smaller armies and a terrible economy

25:35

the romans are barely so some of you might be a little confused because you've been taught that

25:40

rome fell in 476 and i want to just restate rome did not

25:46

fall in 476 a.d rome fell in 1453 a.d

25:51

and that's nonsense all rome did was reunify so there was only one emperor

25:57

and the capital was constantinople which in this map is spelled with a k



and to make a long story a short a persian general his name was uh

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uh see where there's there's parts of the roman empire that are they have uh vertical lines through them

28:41

shahbaz carved that chunk of the roman empire off and and began ruling it himself

28:47

basically because he eventually himself rebels against the persians and so there actually ends up being three empires one

28:54

empire that stretches from egypt to armenia ruled by shah bahraz the persian empire to the east and the roman empire

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to the west eventually heraclius makes a deal with

29:06

shahbaz to try to make him the new emperor to end the war

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heraclius actually ended up raising shah bahraz's son his name was nikitas

29:17

and he raised him as a christian and so emperor heraclius is thinking nicaitus

29:23

will eventually become the christian ruler of the persian empire the the struggle between rome and persia will

29:28

finally end and so he he pushes really hard backs chaparrazz

29:34

finally takes over tisifon the persian capital in 628 so this war went

29:41

26 years he takes over the persian capital

29:47

becomes the persian emperor he even mints a coin with his face on it and 40

29:52

days later is stabbed to death but the war ended so that was good

29:59

it's just the goal wasn't achieved 6 28

30:05

and this is where the intersection takes place between

30:10

the story i wanted to tell you in the in the background that i gave you

30:17

in 610 in arabia so if you went right off the map to the south

30:24

that's where mecca is and and then steven's going to scroll down for us right there where it says

30:31

um there is a man who receives

30:36

prophecy from the archangel gabriel and his name is muhammad and he becomes

30:42

the prophet (S.A.W.) who will create Islam i'm not going to give you the whole story but i just want to make sure that we're



him in and eventually the city gets renamed medina nebi which means the city of the prophet today we just call it medina so

31:57

if you look at a map off you won't see a thread on there a modern map you'll see medina that's that city

32:06

in 625 the muslims are going to have a fight with the meccans the battle uhud

32:13

and the meccans beat the muslims in 627 the meccans attack yathrib and

32:20

they fight a battle called the battle of the trench khalid ibn walid was a soldier in both

32:26

of those battles in 625 he was there when the meccans defeated muhammad and

32:32

the muslims and he was fighting for the meccans against the muslims in 627 he's there

32:38

again at the battle of the trench where the muslims defeat the meccans

32:44

afterwards and we don't know exactly when but within two years he he switches sides and he converts to islam

32:54

in 629 that's why i know it's within two years he's marching with

33:00

uh soldiers from yathrib north so see where it says petra go to

33:06

the east of that there's a city called or a town called muta and he marches towards muta with this

33:12

army three thousand arabs three thousand muslim arabs and their goal is to attack the roman

33:18

empire




48:04

at the right time on the right day in the spot where the persians were at

48:10

night and they wiped out the third 20 000 man unit with almost no losses

48:16

they dispatched 60 000 men in a maneuver that i bet a contemporary military force

48:22

would never be able to execute let alone three times in a row

48:30

insane it shouldn't be removable he gets to where it says duro

48:39

that's the city of firaz firaz was the border between the roman

48:45

empire and the persian empire the persians of the romans hated each other's guts they had been

48:52

fighting each other six six twenty eight plus 52

48:59

right it was 53 bc the battle of karhae but there's no year zero so you have to

49:04

subtract one that's why i'm doing 52. so what what is 28 plus 52 80.

49:10

for 680 years the romans and the persians had been fighting each other

49:17

can you comprehend 680 years of war like i don't even know what that means

49:22

what do you what does that even mean by the time khalid gets to firaz the persians the

49:30

romans looked at each other and went we are no you are no longer the enemy we have a new enemy i don't know where

49:36

these guys even came from because you have to remember at at this point in time the persians had

49:43

been an empire for 1 200 years

49:50

and the romans had officially been an empire calling themselves an empire for 600 years but they had been imperial for

49:59

the 300 before that because even before rome was an empire it owned spain you

50:05

know north africa it owned syria it owned turkey it owned greece

50:10

right and so you have 900 years of imperial history for the romans and 1200

50:17

years of imperial history for the persians there's 21 centuries

50:23

between those two empires and they're also technologically the most advanced civilizations on earth and they had

50:29

massive populations compared to the arabs they're down because of malaria but the arabs don't have any rivers

50:38

they don't have the agriculture capacity to support large populations the arabs are outnumbered

50:44

they're out technology they're out monied they're out experienced they're out

50:50

equipped and khalid in one year has captured iraq

50:57

our military was there for eight years we didn't capture anything we captured ieds in the face

51:09

so the persians go to romans they're like okay we're going to fight this one as allies right and the romans are like

51:14

yes yeah we're good because in the meantime an arab army has attacked from this side

51:20

and is trying to get to jerusalem and so the romans know that the arabs

51:27

you're outnumbered you're out technology you're out money and you're facing two empires

51:34

do you attack both at the same time that makes no sense

51:40

but it's exactly what the arabs did they attacked the two oldest most powerful empires at the same time

51:48

even though they were outnumbered by one let alone both

51:54

and so the romans are like yeah yeah we'll work with you so at firaz the combined


roman army was 150 000 men against

52:19

15 000 muslimers

52:24

so khaled arrives khalid is on the east bank of the euphrates the persians and the romans

52:30

are on the west bank there's a ford and a bridge which isn't convenient if you're moving

52:36

an army it's nice and so hallett is on the pilot needs the

52:42

persians of the romans to cross the river to fight so he very politely

52:47

backs his army up from the bridge in the ford and split it into three five thousand

52:53

man units he'd like that and he put one up river one down river and then pull

53:00

the other one away from the river and he just waited

53:05

so the persians and romans start to cross the bridge and the they're also crossing the ford at the same time

53:11

and he waits and he waits and he waits and then he does a prayer as he's

53:17

waiting and he says god if you give me this victory i will go to

53:23

mecca and i will do the hajj i know i'm going to die i know there's

53:30

no way we're going to defeat 150 000 men today but that's what i will do i'll go i'll

53:35

run and i'll do the hajj and uh and i'm actually happy that i get to die

53:42

as a warrior here today when 50 000 persians and romans had

53:47

crossed the euphrates he blew a horn the men that were up and down river

53:52

attacked them by going along the riverbank and tried to then merge at the bridge in

53:59

the ford so that they would cut the guys who had crossed off from the

54:04

guys on the other side then what khaled did was he took the 5 000 men who against 50 000 and he has

54:11

them charge into him and he had he had his men as thin as possible

54:17

and then he backs his man up and then he charges again and then he backs his men up and he charges again

54:22

and every time his horses go in to those men it compressed them a little bit it compressed them a little bit more

54:30

so after a while the persians the romans are so compressed they can't move their arms they can't swing their weapons

54:37

he's just compacted them together and they realize what he's done to them and they panic

54:43

and they turn around to run back to the river to cross it fifty thousand men turning all at once

54:58

and then the muslim arabs just went in and started killing them as they're running

55:04

by the time the battle was done 200 muslim arabs were dead 50 000 persians and romans were dead

55:17



what is this

--------------Allah Akbar Allaaaaaahhhh - R.A. - S.A.W.


55:23

He's like okay i'm alive that's a surprise


and so what he does is he he orders his

55:29

men back to hiram so what he does is he says okay

55:35

i need to arrive at hira i need to show up on top at the front of my army but i've got to now go

55:42

to mecca to do this hajj so he takes his fastest horses and his best man and they

55:47

race across the desert as fast as they can they get to mecca he puts on a hood

55:54

so that nobody will see his face he quickly does the hajj he jumps back onto a horse and he rides as fast as he

56:00

can he gets to the front of his army just as it's arriving at hira and he

56:05

assumes the position as if he was there the whole time and he marches his men into the city

56:10

and a few days later a messenger arrives from mecca sent by abu bakr khalif and it said you

56:18

were spotted in mecca don't do that again


Watched in the middle somewhere: Continuous Lightning 2023 03 16 21:09


The Austin School • 1K views It went on like this for 40 minutes!!!!!


...


and his goal is to get the romans to run towards the bridge because there's nowhere to go because the muslims

1:08:36

actually have the bridge just the romans don't know and he comes swinging over the top and he smashes the roman left flank

1:08:44

really hard he breaks the roman cavalry in it that was there and he breaks the roman army that was there it's the

1:08:50

cavalry unit and the army start to retreat they're running in two other roman units sending them into

1:08:56

disarray and then the romans tried to respond with heavy cavalry vahan sees what's

1:09:02

happening he organizes cavalry he draws it in but it's heavy cavalry and it's

1:09:07

slow khaled comes in with his light cavalry and he attacks them before they can get into more formation destroys

1:09:13

them then he takes his cavalry and he slams it into the back of the roman army it breaks and goes into full retreat and

1:09:20

that's how he took forty thousand men against a hundred and twenty thousand men at yarmouth and destroyed them



1:09:26

fahan got away with with a cavalry detachment khalid grabbed his fastest horses and

1:09:33

his best men and they took off and they chased general vahon and they caught up with him just outside

1:09:39

of damascus and khaled lets his man

1:09:45

tear up vahan's man until the only man standing is vaha

1:09:50

and khaled told his men don't touch him and then he comes up to varhan and he says you are a man a man's man

1:09:59

and so i'm gonna give you a man's death and they dueled one on one

1:10:05

and he kills vahon and then khaled goes and recaptures

1:10:10

damascus emperor heraclius holds a council

1:10:17

and he asks his remaining generals

1:10:23

what should we do and the generals tell them we've lost syria it's done there's nothing we can

1:10:28

do about it and so heraclius gets on a ship and he says farewell syria you have been a

1:10:36

lovely province and now you will be a lovely province for the arabs and he

1:10:41

withdraws and that was the last time second to last time there was a roman

1:10:47

army in syria they'll they'll get in one more time but they don't really keep it for long

1:10:54

khaled in his army now returned to jerusalem which on this map is hiroshima

1:11:01

in case you were wondering and when they get there

1:11:06

um the romans have largely abandoned it the roman military has but there's enough

1:11:14

people manning the walls that you can't get in

1:11:19

so they are already stuck outside trying to figure out how to get inside so they can capture this holy city



1:11:29

the archbishop of jerusalem a man named safranius by the way a christian arab

1:11:36

a loyal roman citizen indicates he's willing to negotiate

1:11:43

but only with omar abner the khalif or the khalif is all the way back in

1:11:49

mecca it'll be weeks before he can be sent for and then return

1:11:55

so they come up with a scheme and the scheme is

1:12:02

since khalid is umar ibn khattab's first cousin he actually looks like him

1:12:07

so they pretend khalid ibn waleed is the khalif they meet with safranius and while

1:12:14

they're talking somebody had actually met omar ibn khattab i'm sorry had met

1:12:20

khalid and knew that was khalid and so he tells the phoenix you're being

1:12:27

duped it's not really the halif it's some other dude it's that general that that's been tearing us up his

1:12:33

funniest is outraged he goes you lied to me and he calls off the negotiations for

1:12:38

the surrender so now the arms are stuck getting the chalice

1:12:47

sophronius comes out of the gates weeks later to meet the caliph because he sees the

1:12:52

khalif's army arrive and as he's approaching he sees a man leading a camel

1:13:00

at the front of the army so for the record the rich arabs the arabs who were good

1:13:07

soldiers didn't usually ride camels they usually rode horses arabians

1:13:13

and for those who don't know arabians are fast and agile and they have crazy personalities

1:13:19

and so they're perfect for warfare camels are a little bit clumsy and slow

1:13:25

they serve a purpose in warfare but you're better off on an arabian in any case

1:13:31

the arab army is being led by a man leading a camel with a man on the camel

1:13:37

so safronius he's got a giant red hat because he's also a cardinal right he's got gold

1:13:44

tassels actual gold hanging from his hat he's covered in gold jewelry he's

1:13:50

wearing red robes he's covered in perfume he's on electica the lectico was

1:13:55

the couch that the romans would ride and then they'd have like four or eight men depending on how big it is carrying it

1:14:01

and then he has two men one on each side fanning him of course right that's what jesus would want from

1:14:07

his bishops that's exactly right and he's coming out on this lectica

1:14:13

being found and he comes up to the guy on the camel

1:14:18

and he says uh where is the caliph and the guy on the camel does like this he nods with

1:14:25

his head at the guy leading the camel so stephonius turns to the guy leading the camera goes where's the caliph

1:14:30

and the guy leading the camel says i'm the chalice and stephonius goes dude you're dressed

1:14:35

in rags the guy's pants were or mended multiple times his shirt was mended multiple

1:14:42

times and he goes no no i'm the khalif and zephonius goes you've just conquered

1:14:47

iraq and syria and all of palestine minus jerusalem how is it you're so

1:14:54

poor and the khalif goes well why would i collect wealth i'm we're not

1:15:00

doing this war because i'm trying to plunder anything i'm a humble man with humble needs i

1:15:06

just need good meal and then zephonius goes why are you riding the camel

1:15:13

and omar goes uh that's my servant on the camel and we take turns so that neither one of us

1:15:18

gets exhausted at this point sephoras is like oh what who just conquered us

1:15:25

what are these marxists (lol)


and so cephonius gets off the lectica

1:15:32

because he's shamed off of the thing and he says okay i i want to talk to you about our

1:15:40

surrendering the city to you and and the khalif says

1:15:45

i have an idea let's walk to the city and i'll tell you

1:15:50

what i was thinking the terms would be and then and then so we'll start there

1:15:56

and support it goes yes of course and as they're walking

1:16:03

says why don't we do this all roman

1:16:08

politicians leave jerusalem

1:16:13

you just go if you're a politician so if you're a top bureaucrat

1:16:20

an officer and you can take anything you can carry

1:16:25

so you can take gold as long as you can carry

1:16:31

and sophonias goes okay uh i mean that's reasonable that's actually more than reasonable i

1:16:36

just assumed you'd enslave them and take their goal i don't i don't see how anybody would be

1:16:42

mad about that and then what else and the khalif goes oh no i was thinking

1:16:47

that's it uh we we don't do anything else and sophonius goes wait a minute i am

1:16:53

really confused so when us romans capture a city we enslave a segment

1:17:00

we plunder the city probably a little bit too much raping too

1:17:05

we might even burn some of it just for grins and giggles and then we declare it to be ours

1:17:12

what about that we're not going to do any of that no

1:17:18

plundering no raping no enslaving we don't do that stuff

1:17:24

and then sephonius goes oh but you're going to like seize property in the city and so and the khalif goes no no we're

1:17:30

not going to take anybody's property we're going to leave the city exactly like it is the only thing i want to do

1:17:36

is eject the roman politicians with whatever they can carry

1:17:42

and sophomores because there's nothing to negotiate yeah we surrender the city this instant

1:17:47

i i don't understand actually they walk into the city

1:17:52

khalid is one of the men following us all these guys they're on foot

1:17:58

if they've got their horses with them they're leading their horses by the reins right because the leadership is on foot there's no way they're going to

1:18:04

ride in they're walking and this is a holy city to them because jesus is holy to them because

1:18:10

the jews were holy to them and so they see this as a holy city

1:18:16

sophronius goes tell me about your religion as they're walking through the streets

1:18:22

and so um starts telling about islam

1:18:27

sophonias goes it just sounds like a variation of christianity i

1:18:33

i feel like our religions are shockingly similar and

1:18:39

um goes yeah because they are i mean we thought we were doing uh judaism 3.0

1:18:46

it never occurred to us that we were going to be received as being so different and

1:18:52

uh he goes okay since you've given us such amazing

1:19:00

surrender terms my alarm is going on and i can't turn it off and it's so embarrassing it's telling me to put my

1:19:06

kids to bed i should have remembered to turn it off

1:19:13

but it didn't occur he says you've given us such amazing surrender terms and because i feel such kinship with

1:19:18

religion will you do me an honor will you come to my church and pray in your

1:19:24

muslim way next to me as i pray in my christian way and um goes never

1:19:31

and sophonias goes why he goes i'm the khalif

1:19:36

the first place i pray in jerusalem is going to become a mosque the muslims will take it and they will create a

1:19:43

place of worship for muslims and you will lose it and i don't want you to lose your church

1:19:52

and sephonius goes oh uh okay what if we find an empty piece

1:19:58

of jerusalem and we just pray there and omar R.A. goes yes i accept

1:20:04

an empty piece something that nobody owns so they go and they find an empty lot

1:20:10

and they pray the archbishop in his christian way the caliph in his muslim way side by side

1:20:19

it is a mosque today that spot commemorating the first place that the

1:20:24

first muslim god of prayed in in jerusalem he nailed it he he knew what was coming

1:20:30

and he saved the church of the holy sepulchre for christians because that's the church cephronius

1:20:37

wanted him to pray in

1:20:44

at that point the khalif says i want to see the temple mount

1:20:50

and sophonius goes why and goes because it's holy

1:20:55

it's holy everybody it's holy the christians it's holy to jews it's holy to muslims and sophomores goes nah we

1:21:01

haven't been treating it as holy day anybody and um goes what do you mean

1:21:07

and so sephora says so after we tore down the second temple of solomon when we conquered palestine

1:21:16

we turned the temple mount into a garbage jump to punish the jews

1:21:22

and so and the khalif goes what do you mean and stephonius goes yeah we've been

1:21:28

there's like 500 years of refuse on that thing it's just a garbage dump

1:21:33

and he goes show me they walk up to the temple mount and the khalif can't believe what he's

1:21:40

looking at he falls on his knees and he begins clearing the garbage by his hands

1:21:46

his army sees their leader on his knees clearing garbage and they run up and they start

1:21:52

clearing the garbage themselves and they clear the garbage off the temple mount

1:21:59

the caliph goes okay i want to meet some of the jews living in jerusalem

1:22:05

and sophonius goes there are no jews in jerusalem

1:22:11

and the khalifa goes what do you mean there's no jews in jerusalem the city is holy to the jews

1:22:17

how could there be no jews and he says well us christians we pretty

1:22:22

much murder them every chance we get we really hate jews in fact in the war we just did against

1:22:29

the persians the jews sided with the persians and so we murdered 20 000 jews

1:22:34

in jerusalem and completely purged the city of its remaining jewish population

1:22:41

and omar ibn al-khattab (r.A.) goes no this is wrong you can't do this

1:22:47

and so he turns to a convert to islam a jewish convert to islam

1:22:53

and he says i need you to find me 80 jewish families that were willing to volunteer to move

1:22:59

to jerusalem so we can re-establish a jewish presence in this city and that's

1:23:08

how the muslims conquered jerusalem



1:23:13

and that's the stuff that's left out of your history books

1:23:22

isn't that crazy because isn't that an amazing story



1:23:30

after jerusalem omar turns to khalid and goes i know you fought at yarmouk and i know you

1:23:37

impersonated me i really hate you you're gonna go to mecca

1:23:44

and you're gonna spend the rest of your days there you're not no more combat for you i'm

1:23:50

retiring you i actually don't think he died in mecca he did leave but he never fought another

1:23:57

battle that was it that was the end of his military career he was he (R.A.) died in bed at age 50. i don't

1:24:05

know what was ailing him something got him and his final words were

1:24:11

you cannot put your hand anywhere on my body

1:24:16

without touching a combat wound i am covered in scars

1:24:24

it was my dream that god would let me die as a man on the field of battle

1:24:32

here i am in a bed dying like a cow (*-> camel)

1:24:41

and that's where i'm going to end this story


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




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hi everyone I'm Ben Norton of geopolitical economy report and today I have the great pleasure of speaking with

0:07 a friend of the show The Economist Michael Hudson and I'm very excited to be discussing his newest book the

0:15 collapse of antiquity Greece and Rome as civilizations oligarchic turning point

0:21 this book is an absolute tour de force it's an incredible work not only of

0:28 economic history but simply I would say anthropology and economic archeology I

0:33 think it really shows that many people know Michael Hudson for his work on economics and finance but I would say

0:41 that a book like this shows that he's also an economic Anthropologist or an economic archaeologist and he goes

0:48 through and and details essentially the history of the emergence of the modern

0:54 Financial system in it with its roots back in Classical Greece and Rome and

1:00 the role the the defining role of debt in the development of all of these political models and this is a book

1:08 focused on classical Antiquity so it goes from about from the 8th Century of

1:13 BC or BCE until the 5th Century A.D or

1:18 CE in in his book Michael uses BC so I'll use that for the dates and Michael

1:25 starts I mean this is a 500 page book he starts discussing the emergence of

1:31 interest bearing debt and the emergence of Classical Greece in the 8th Century

1:37 BC and then he goes through Classical Greece and then the classical Rome the

1:43 emergence of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire the rise of Christianity and the influence on political culture

1:50 today so Michael I mean there's so much that I want to ask you about this is a